The Fabric of Cells and Their Molecular Building Blocks
Water 80-85% - Proteins 10-15%, functional components, enzymes, receptors, etc. lipids 2-5%, phospholipids, membranes - DNA 0.5%, genetic code - RNA 0.5% -1%, instrumental for protein synthesis - Polysaccharides 0.1-1%, linked chains, back bone of the double helix - Salt (Ions) 1.5%, vital for signaling.
Amino Acids and Proteins
The 10, 000 different proteins of the human body are built of 20 amino acids. - Essential amino acids are n ot produced by the human body. - Amino acids have a carboxylic acid (ac idic) and an amino group (alkaline) - The presence of amino acids results in an amphoteric character - Carboxyl can bond with the amino group and form a peptide bond, by repeating this process amino acids can build chains - Long amino acid chains twist, fold, and rotate to form three-dimensional proteins - hence proteins have the following type of structures: Primary-Secondary (a-Helix,b-Sheet) Tertiary - Quaternary
Phospholipids: The Skeleton of Biomembranes
Glycerin is a C3 molecule, where a hydroxyl (alcohol) group is attached to each carbon atom. - As alcohols react with acids to form esters, both fatty acids and phosphoric acid react with glycerin to form a triester. - Fatty acids are acidic because of their carboxyl group. Unsaturated fatty acids are a vital component of membrane phospholipids. - Phosphoric acid is H3PO4- Phosphoric acid + glycerin = glycerin -3-phosphate (phosphoglycerin). Fatty acids can esterify with phosphoglycerin. - The phosphate residue can continue to esterify (e.g., with cholin = trimethylethanolamin).
Sugar and Carbohydrates
Sugars are polyalcohols with an aldehyde- or keto-group, called aldoses or ketoses. Sugars are named accordingly to the number of C-atoms, trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hextoses and so on. - Sugars easily forms rings: pyranoses, furanoses, in many different stereo-isomeric forms. - Sugar can bond with sugar; the elimination of water creates a glucosidic bond. - Several sugar molecules of the same or of a different kind can form chains.
DNA and RNA are nucleic acids: multiple molecules of different categories. - Nucleic ac ids are natural polymers consisting of many nucleotide building blocks. - Nucleotides consist of phosphoric acid, sugar (pentose), and base (pyrimidin e and purine). - DNA: the sugar is D-Deoxyribose: the bases can be thymine, cystosine, adenine, and guanine. - RNA: the sugar is D-Ribose; the thymine base is replaced by uracyl.
Reference: The Healing Intelligence of Essential Oils:Kurt Schnaubelt, Ph.D.
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